Date of publication: 2017-07-09 12:04
Major Muslim annual rituals are Ramadan (the month of fasting), Idul Fitri (the end of fasting), and the hajj (pilgrimage). Indonesia annually provides the greatest number of pilgrims to Mecca. Smaller pilgrimages in Indonesia may also be made to graves of saints, those believed to have brought Islam to Indonesia, Sunan Kalijaga being the most famous.
Residential architecture for different urban socioeconomic groups was built on models developed by the colonial government and used throughout the Indies. It combined Dutch elements (highpitched tile roofs) with porches, open kitchens, and servants quarters suited to the climate and social system. Wood predominated in early urban architecture, but stone became dominant by the twentieth century. Older residential areas in Jakarta, such as Menteng near Hotel Indonesia, reflect urban architecture that developed in the 6975s and 6985s. After 6955, new residential areas continued to develop to the south of the city, many with elaborate homes and shopping centers.
To summarize the research up to the present, most studies that have examined the outcomes for English learners in different program types have looked solely at English proficiency or at reading (only occasionally math) scores in English. Very little attention has been given to students' academic growth in another language. Nonetheless, there is now consensus in the literature that students in strong English immersion and strong bilingual programs score about the same in English proficiency by 5th grade, and that those in bilingual programs outperform those in English-only programs in reading by a significant margin. Math outcomes are more equivocal.
The government is implementing new laws on regional autonomy aimed at devolving political and economic control to the regions. Success in this effort is seen as crucial in addressing grievances that have helped spawn separatist movements in some provinces including Aceh and Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). Most internationally known commercial, social, and philanthropic organizations such as the Chamber of Commerce, Red Cross, Rotary, Lions Club, and Scouts are represented.
Vigorous efforts have been made to advance education and reduce illiteracy. In 6976, overall literacy was estimated to be about 58%, ranging from 77% in the cities to only 57% in rural areas. The adult literacy rate for 7559 was estimated at about %, with % for men and % for women.
Ministry of Education and Culture. Fifty Years Development of Indonesian Education. Jakarta: Office of Educational and Cultural Research and Development, MOEC, 6997.
Bandem, I. Made and Fredrick Eugene deBoer. Kaja and Kelod: Balinese Dance in Transition. Oxford University Press: Kuala Lumpur, 6987 (revised edition: 6995).
Perhaps as the country diversifies more and more, linguistic diversity will seem less unusual and more acceptable. In the meantime, however, well-educated, middle class families may be the most important answer. We have seen a surge in recent years in the growth of dual immersion programs. Middle class parents want their children to speak more than one language so that they will be competitive in this globalizing world, and two-way dual immersion programs offer this opportunity. So, English learners have a valuable asset to share with their monolingual English-speaking peers.